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Webseite schneller machen: GZip und Cache

Du kannst mit relativ wenig Aufwand die Response-Time deiner WordPress-Seite deutlich reduzieren, was eine bessere Suchmaschinen-Bewertung zur Folge hat. Dazu muss deine Webseite nur auf einem Apache-Webserver laufen, was aber die meisten werden.

GZip-Komprimierung aktivieren

Öffne die .htaccess-Datei mit dem Editor deiner Wahl und füge folgenden Code ein (ergänzen, nicht ersetzen!) :

## GZip-Compression
<IfModule mod_deflate.c>
	# Compress HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Text, XML and fonts
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/javascript
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/rss+xml
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/vnd.ms-fontobject
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-font
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-font-opentype
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-font-otf
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-font-truetype
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-font-ttf
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-javascript
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/xhtml+xml
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/xml
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE font/opentype
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE font/otf
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE font/ttf
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE image/svg+xml
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE image/x-icon
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/css
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/javascript
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/plain
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/xml

	# Remove browser bugs (only needed for really old browsers)
	BrowserMatch ^Mozilla/4 gzip-only-text/html
	BrowserMatch ^Mozilla/4\.0[678] no-gzip
	BrowserMatch \bMSIE !no-gzip !gzip-only-text/html
	Header append Vary User-Agent
</IfModule>
## END GZip-Compression

Dieser Code komprimiert die Übertragung. Dein Webserver „packt“ die Webseiten-Daten und überträgt nur die komprimierten Daten. Auf der Seite des Benutzers (clients) werden die Daten dann wieder vom Browser entpackt. Weniger Daten übertragen heißt schneller Daten übertragen. Schneller Daten übertragen heißt für Google und Co. dass die Seite generell schnell ist, was gut ist!

Leverage Caching aktivieren

Das „Leverage Caching“ (welches nur beim Apache-Webserver funktioniert) cached die Daten für wiederkehrende Besucher. Das bedeutet auch, dass dein Logo, welches beim ersten Aufrufen zwischengespeichert wird, beim nächsten Aufruf aus dem Cache gezogen wird. Lokal vom Besucher aus dem Browser. Das bedeutet, dass diese Datei nicht übertragen wird und somit nur noch ein „Bruchteil“ zum Besucher übertragen werden muss. Im Umkehrschluss bedeutet das, dass deine Seite verdammt schnell wird!

Wie oben muss du den folgenden Code in deine .htaccess-Datei kopieren (ergänzen, nicht ersetzen!):

## Leverage Browser Caching
<IfModule mod_expires.c>
    ExpiresActive on
    ExpiresDefault                                      "access plus 1 month"

  # CSS
    ExpiresByType text/css                              "access plus 1 year"

  # Data interchange
    ExpiresByType application/atom+xml                  "access plus 1 hour"
    ExpiresByType application/rdf+xml                   "access plus 1 hour"
    ExpiresByType application/rss+xml                   "access plus 1 hour"
    ExpiresByType application/json                      "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType application/ld+json                   "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType application/schema+json               "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType application/vnd.geo+json              "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType application/xml                       "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType text/calendar                         "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType text/xml                              "access plus 0 seconds"

  # Favicon (cannot be renamed!) and cursor images
    ExpiresByType image/vnd.microsoft.icon              "access plus 1 week"
    ExpiresByType image/x-icon                          "access plus 1 week"

  # HTML
    ExpiresByType text/html                             "access plus 0 seconds"

  # JavaScript
    ExpiresByType application/javascript                "access plus 1 year"
    ExpiresByType application/x-javascript              "access plus 1 year"
    ExpiresByType text/javascript                       "access plus 1 year"

  # Manifest files
    ExpiresByType application/manifest+json             "access plus 1 week"
    ExpiresByType application/x-web-app-manifest+json   "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType text/cache-manifest                   "access plus 0 seconds"

  # Markdown
    ExpiresByType text/markdown                         "access plus 0 seconds"

  # Media files
    ExpiresByType audio/ogg                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/bmp                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/gif                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/jpeg                            "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/png                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/svg+xml                         "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/webp                            "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType video/mp4                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType video/ogg                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType video/webm                            "access plus 1 month"

  # Web fonts
    # Collection
    ExpiresByType font/collection                       "access plus 1 month"

    # Embedded OpenType (EOT)
    ExpiresByType application/vnd.ms-fontobject         "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType font/eot                              "access plus 1 month"

    # OpenType
    ExpiresByType font/opentype                         "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType font/otf                              "access plus 1 month"

    # TrueType
    ExpiresByType application/x-font-ttf                "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType font/ttf                              "access plus 1 month"

    # Web Open Font Format (WOFF) 1.0
    ExpiresByType application/font-woff                 "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType application/x-font-woff               "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType font/woff                             "access plus 1 month"

    # Web Open Font Format (WOFF) 2.0
    ExpiresByType application/font-woff2                "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType font/woff2                            "access plus 1 month"

  # Other
    ExpiresByType text/x-cross-domain-policy            "access plus 1 week"
</IfModule>
## END Leverage Browser Caching

Zusammenfassend für copy+paste

## Leverage Browser Caching
<IfModule mod_expires.c>
    ExpiresActive on
    ExpiresDefault                                      "access plus 1 month"

  # CSS
    ExpiresByType text/css                              "access plus 1 year"

  # Data interchange
    ExpiresByType application/atom+xml                  "access plus 1 hour"
    ExpiresByType application/rdf+xml                   "access plus 1 hour"
    ExpiresByType application/rss+xml                   "access plus 1 hour"
    ExpiresByType application/json                      "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType application/ld+json                   "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType application/schema+json               "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType application/vnd.geo+json              "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType application/xml                       "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType text/calendar                         "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType text/xml                              "access plus 0 seconds"

  # Favicon (cannot be renamed!) and cursor images
    ExpiresByType image/vnd.microsoft.icon              "access plus 1 week"
    ExpiresByType image/x-icon                          "access plus 1 week"

  # HTML
    ExpiresByType text/html                             "access plus 0 seconds"

  # JavaScript
    ExpiresByType application/javascript                "access plus 1 year"
    ExpiresByType application/x-javascript              "access plus 1 year"
    ExpiresByType text/javascript                       "access plus 1 year"

  # Manifest files
    ExpiresByType application/manifest+json             "access plus 1 week"
    ExpiresByType application/x-web-app-manifest+json   "access plus 0 seconds"
    ExpiresByType text/cache-manifest                   "access plus 0 seconds"

  # Markdown
    ExpiresByType text/markdown                         "access plus 0 seconds"

  # Media files
    ExpiresByType audio/ogg                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/bmp                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/gif                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/jpeg                            "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/png                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/svg+xml                         "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType image/webp                            "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType video/mp4                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType video/ogg                             "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType video/webm                            "access plus 1 month"

  # Web fonts
    # Collection
    ExpiresByType font/collection                       "access plus 1 month"

    # Embedded OpenType (EOT)
    ExpiresByType application/vnd.ms-fontobject         "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType font/eot                              "access plus 1 month"

    # OpenType
    ExpiresByType font/opentype                         "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType font/otf                              "access plus 1 month"

    # TrueType
    ExpiresByType application/x-font-ttf                "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType font/ttf                              "access plus 1 month"

    # Web Open Font Format (WOFF) 1.0
    ExpiresByType application/font-woff                 "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType application/x-font-woff               "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType font/woff                             "access plus 1 month"

    # Web Open Font Format (WOFF) 2.0
    ExpiresByType application/font-woff2                "access plus 1 month"
    ExpiresByType font/woff2                            "access plus 1 month"

  # Other
    ExpiresByType text/x-cross-domain-policy            "access plus 1 week"
</IfModule>
## END Leverage Browser Caching

## GZip-Compression
<IfModule mod_deflate.c>
	# Compress HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Text, XML and fonts
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/javascript
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/rss+xml
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/vnd.ms-fontobject
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-font
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-font-opentype
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-font-otf
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-font-truetype
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-font-ttf
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-javascript
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/xhtml+xml
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/xml
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE font/opentype
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE font/otf
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE font/ttf
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE image/svg+xml
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE image/x-icon
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/css
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/javascript
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/plain
	AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/xml

	# Remove browser bugs (only needed for really old browsers)
	BrowserMatch ^Mozilla/4 gzip-only-text/html
	BrowserMatch ^Mozilla/4\.0[678] no-gzip
	BrowserMatch \bMSIE !no-gzip !gzip-only-text/html
	Header append Vary User-Agent
</IfModule>
## END GZip-Compression

.htaccess alle Zugriff auf HTTPS umleiten

Noch einen weiteren .htaccess-Hack findest du hier: https://sammelmappe.org/htaccess-alle-zugriff-auf-https-umleiten/

Somit kannst du deinen Webserver „zwingen“, dass alles HTTP-Zugriffe auf HTTPS gehen!

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